ITS Standards Fact Sheets
IEEE 1609 - Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)
This Fact Sheet was updated on April 9, 2013. The status of the IEEE 1609.3, IEEE 1609.3 cor.1, IEEE 1609.4, IEEE 1609.11, and IEEE 1609.12 standards was published. IEEE 1609.2 (approved for publication on or around April 19, 2013) is being shown in this fact sheet as published. Draft Standards under development are 1609.0, IEEE 1609.6, a corrigendum 2 for IEEE 1609.3 and a corrigendum 1 for IEEE 1609.4. The IEEE 1609.1 Trial Use standard was withdrawn in 2012, and IEEE 1609.2, 1609.3, and 1609.4 Trial Use standards have been superseded by full use standards.
This Fact Sheet was written on April 09, 2013.
This Fact Sheet was last verified on April 09, 2013
Check the ITS Standards Search to see if there has been subsequent development activity.
Provision of externally-driven services to vehicles has been limited because of the lack of ubiquitous high-speed communications between vehicles and service providers, and the lack of homogeneous communications interfaces between different automotive manufacturers. The IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) completely address the latter issue, and provide a sufficient foundation regarding the organization of management functions and modes of operation of system devices to address the former.
The WAVE standards define an architecture and a complementary, standardized set of protocols, services and interfaces that collectively enable secure vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications. Together these standards provide the foundation for a broad range of applications in the transportation environment, including vehicle safety, automated tolling, enhanced navigation, traffic management and many others. The IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) consists of five published standards, one published corrigenda to correct known errors, two unpublished standards under development, and two additional planned draft corrigenda to correct known errors in published standards. The draft corrigenda will add some clarifications, align nomenclature with IEEE Std 802.11-2012, and update document references to the published versions:
- IEEE P1609.0 Draft Guide for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Architecture describes the WAVE architecture, how the IEEE 1609 standards work together and services necessary for multi-channel Dedicate Short Range Communications (DSRC)/WAVE devices to communicate in a mobile vehicular environment.
- IEEE Std 1609.2TM – 2013 - Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) – Security Services for Applications and Management Messages defines secure message formats and processing. This standard also defines the circumstances for using secure message exchanges and how those messages should be processed upon receipt.
- IEEE Std 1609.3TM - 2010 - Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) – Networking Services defines network and transport layer services, including addressing and routing, in support of secure WAVE data exchange. It also defines Wave Short Messages, providing an efficient WAVE-specific alternative to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) that can be directly supported by applications. Further, this standard defines the Management Information Base (MIB) for the WAVE protocol stack.
- IEEE Std 1609.3TM - 2010/Cor 1 - 2012 - Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Services Corrigendum 1: Miscellaneous Corrections. Three errors in IEEE Std 1609.3-2010 related to Gateway MAC Address, EDCA Parameter Set, and 3DLocationAndConfidence fields are addressed in this corrigendum.
- IEEE P1609.3TM-2010/Cor 2 - Draft Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)—Networking Services Corrigendum 2: Miscellaneous Corrections. Corrects errors in IEEE Standard 1609.3-2010, including those identified from the incorporation of IEEE 802.11p-2010 amendment into IEEE Standard 802.11-2012.
- IEEE Std 1609.4TM - 2010 - Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Operations provides enhancements to the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Control (MAC) to support multichannel WAVE operations.
- IEEE P1609.4TM - 2010/Cor 1 – Draft Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Operations Corrigendum 1: Correct Identified Errors. Corrects errors in IEEE Standard 1609.4-2010, including those identified from the incorporation of IEEE 802.11p-2010 amendment into IEEE Standard 802.11-2012.
- Draft IEEE P1609.6 – Remote Management Services provides inter-operable services to manage WAVE devices that support being managed over the air. It consists primarily of a remote management service, including identification services for these WAVE devices, utilizing the WAVE management services defined by IEEE Std 1609.3, as well as the use of the identification services with the WAVE short message protocol, also defined by IEEE Std 1609.3.
- IEEE Std 1609.11TM- 2010 - Over-the-Air Data Exchange Protocol for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) defines the services and secure message formats necessary to support secure electronic payments.
- IEEE Std 1609.12TM - 2012 – Identifier Allocations. This document indicates identifier values that have been allocated for use by WAVE systems, including the Provider Service Identifier allocations harmonized with ISO, CEN, and ETSI.
What are these standards for?
The IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) defines the architecture, communications model, protocols, security mechanisms, network services, multichannel operation, use of Provider Service Identifiers, and how they work with the physical layer and media access layer for high speed (up to 27 Mb/s) short range (up to 1000m) low latency wireless communications in the vehicular environment. The primary architectural components defined by these standards are the On Board Unit (OBU), Road Side Unit (RSU) and WAVE interface.
These standards also define how applications that utilize WAVE will function in the WAVE environment. These standards and how they function are illustrated and described in the Draft guide for WAVE-Architecture (IEEE 1609.0), based on the security protocols defined in IEEE Std 1609.2TM – 2013, the networking service protocols defined in IEEE Std 1609.3TM-2010, extensions to the physical and media access control defined in IEEE Std 802.11TM-2012 to support the multi-channel WAVE standards in IEEE Std 1609.4TM-2010, and the use of identifier allocations in IEEE Std 1609.12TM-2012.
Who uses them?
This family of standards should be used by transportation, automotive and traffic engineers involved with the design, specification, implementation, and testing of WAVE devices. Network engineers, hardware engineers, and application designers supporting Connected Vehicle applications will use these standards as they define the communications architecture for DSRC -based V2V and V2I interactions, and as the basis for the low-latency interface design of On-Board and Roadside devices. Connected Vehicle application designers may use the standards to provide the basis for interface definitions between system components, and as a framework for application architecture.
How are they used?
Collectively the IEEE 1609 Family of Standards Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) describes wireless data exchange, security, and service advertisement between mobile users and fixed roadside devices, and those layers of the applicable protocols that Connected Vehicle applications may require access to when communicating with and among mobile users such as vehicles, pedestrians, bicyclists, and between mobile users and the roadside. They describe the physical mechanism of communication, as well as the command and management services, and provide two options (WAVE short message and IPv6) for communicating between mobile users (such as vehicles) and between mobile and roadside devices. These standards provide the basis for the design of applications interfacing with the WAVE environment, and provide network services so that applications can be seamless without regard to specific manufacturers, including data storage access mechanisms, device management, and secure message passing.
The architecture, protocols, interfaces and messages defined in the IEEE 1609 Family of Standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) support the operation of secure wireless communications between mobile users including vehicles, pedestrians, bicyclists, and between mobile users and the infrastructure. Applications may utilize these standards in conjunction with 5.9 GHz radio equipment to provide, for example, services to drivers, roadway operators, facility operators and maintenance personnel.
The following ITS standards are related and should be considered when using this standard:
- ASTM E2213-03 - Standard Specification for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Roadside and Vehicle Systems - 5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications
- SAE J2354 - Message Set for Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)
The following set of standards and documents, while not part of the ITS standards, should also be considered when using this standard:
- IAB STD 5 - RFC 791: Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification
- IAB STD 7 - RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification
- IEEE Std 802.11, 1999 Edition (ISO/IEC 8802.11:1999), IEEE Standard for Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications
- ISO/IEC 7498-1 -- Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection- Basic Reference Model: The Basic Model
- RFC 2460-1998, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification
- RFC 768:1980, User Datagram Protocol
How to obtain Standards
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